Friday, March 4, 2011

“Sukhasya moolam Dharmah”

“Sukhasya moolam Dharmah”: "

Many of you must have come across this well-known sutra before. Some days back, I got curious to know more about it…and I turned to Radhakrishnan Pillai and Ranjit Shetty, co-Founders and Directors of the Chanakya Institute of Public Leadership in Mumbai. Radhakrishnan and Ranjit put me in touch with CIPL’s course-coordinator, Malathi..who sent me this very helpful email (thanks also to Rahul and Pravin – both participants at CIPL, who helped Malathi locate the sutras):

The sutras which you have asked the reference for comes in Chanakya Pranita Sutra which is also called Chankaya Sutra. It doesn’t come under Arthashastra. There are works by Chanakya other than Arthashastra like Laghu Chanakya, Rajneeti Shastra, Chanakya Neeti, Chanakya Sutra etc. Chanakya Sutra has 572 sutras. These are the first 10 sutras from Chanakya Sutra:

1. Sukhasya moolam Dharmah

Meaning – The basis of “sukha” or all true pleasantness is “dharma” or righteous conduct.

2. Dharmasya moolam Arthah

Meaning- The basis of all “dharma” is “artha” or wealth.

3. Arthasya moolam Rajyam

Meaning – The basis of all “artha” is “rajya” or the State.

4. Rajyasya moolam Indriya Jayah

Meaning – The basis for the stability of the State lies in control over the “indriya“ or sense faculties providing pleasure.

5. Indriyajayasya moolam Vinayah

Meaning – The basis for control over the sensual faculties is in “vinay” or humility.

6. Vinayasya moolam Vruddhopasevah

Meaning – The basis for humility is devotion to those grown old through wisdom.

7. Vruddhopasevaya Vijnanam

Meaning – Through devotion to the wise, one attains proficiency with the maximum efficiency.

8. Vijnanena atmaanam Sampadyet

Meaning – It is imperative for all the functionaries of the State to perform their duties with the maximum efficiency.

9. Samapaditatma jitatmama Bhavati

Meaning – To perform State duties with the maximum efficiency, the functionaries of the State must learn to control their sensual needs, and maximise their internal potential.

10. Jitatma sarvarthe Sanyujyate

Meaning – Those who have vanquished their baser selves will become prosperous naturally, can retain their prosperity, and (will) be successful in their endeavours.

Here are the sutras in Devanagari script:

सुखस्य मूलं धर्मः , धर्मस्य मूलं अर्थः

अर्थस्य मूलं राज्यं , राज्यस्य मूलं इन्द्रिय जयः

इन्द्रियाजयस्य मूलं विनयः, विनयस्य मूलं वृद्धोपसेवः

वृद्धोपसेवाय विग्न्यानं , विग्न्यानेनं आत्मानं सम्पद्येत

समपदितात्म जितात्मम भवति, जितात्मा सर्वार्थे संयुज्यते

Related Posts: Understanding Raj-Dharma – Part I and Part II